Game design for visually-impaired individuals: Creativity and innovation theories and sensory substitution devices influence on virtual and physical navigation skills

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Rose Marie Baker
Karina Ramos
John R Turner


This action research study examined the design elements of three VR games that used an HTC VIVE VR helmet, two HTC game controllers, and a VR horse simulator for functionality and transferability to orientation and mobility (O&M) education for visually impaired individuals. The functionality of the VR games was tested with a visually-impaired individual based upon five characteristics that are important to O&M education: perimeter scanning then grid scanning, hearing, touch, smell, and perceptions of body positions. The horse simulator has potential benefits for proprioception and kinesthesia development. The inconsistent haptic feedback requires redesign consideration for inclusion within VR games and systems for O&M education.


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How to Cite
Baker, R. M., Ramos, K., & Turner, J. R. (2018). Game design for visually-impaired individuals: Creativity and innovation theories and sensory substitution devices influence on virtual and physical navigation skills. Irish Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning, 4(1), 36–47.
Original Research
Author Biographies

Rose Marie Baker, University of North Texas

Dr. Rose Baker, Assistant Professor, Learning Technologies, University of North Texas, researches management techniques and statistical applications for operations and performance improvement, theory development, survey and evaluation design, and impact and prevention of substance use. She holds a PhD in Instructional Systems from Penn State and is a certified PMP® by PMI.

John R Turner, University of North Texas

John R. Turner, Ph.D., is an assistant professor at the University of North Texas for the Department of Learning Technologies in the College of Information. His research interests are in team science, team cognition, performance improvement, knowledge management, leadership, theory building, complexity theory, multilevel models, and meta-analysis techniques. He is the current Editor-in-chief for Performance Improvement Quarterly (PIQ) and has published articles in Advances in Developing Human Resources; Human Resource Development Review; and others. 


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