Game design for visually-impaired individuals: Creativity and innovation theories and sensory substitution devices influence on virtual and physical navigation skills

Rose Marie Baker, Karina Ramos, John R Turner


This action research study examined the design elements of three VR games that used an HTC VIVE VR helmet, two HTC game controllers, and a VR horse simulator for functionality and transferability to orientation and mobility (O&M) education for visually impaired individuals. The functionality of the VR games was tested with a visually-impaired individual based upon five characteristics that are important to O&M education: perimeter scanning then grid scanning, hearing, touch, smell, and perceptions of body positions. The horse simulator has potential benefits for proprioception and kinesthesia development. The inconsistent haptic feedback requires redesign consideration for inclusion within VR games and systems for O&M education.


game design, haptic feedback, sensory substitution devices, visually impaired, virtual environments

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