Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) Intercultural Competence: A Phenomenological Exploration of Trainees’ Experiences within Global Virtual Training Environments.

Chris O'Toole

Abstract


Abstract                                          

Research suggests that a crucial aspect of communication for successful interactions between online trainers and trainees of different cultures is intercultural competence. A question is therefore posed: “To what extent and in what ways does the trainee experience trainer intercultural competence within a global virtual training environment?” It is important to answer this question to understand and enhance intercultural competence of trainers within a global virtual training environment (VTE).This phenomenological study explored the lived experience[1] of three trainees (one being the researcher) within two professional global VTEs. Data was collected through short written reports of participants’ experience of the phenomenon and through an in-depth semi-structured interview. Findings revealed low levels of intercultural competence within global VTEs. However the data collected also suggested that enhanced intercultural communication on behalf of the trainers would improve training. Three themes described the participants’ experiences; substantial intercultural biases held by trainers towards trainees; frequent communication problems between trainers and trainees; and a preference by trainees for trainers to enhance their intercultural competence within global VTEs. Limitations included the relatively low number of participants.


 

[1]Individual experiences of people as conscious human beings (Moustakas, 1994).


Keywords


Intercultural Competence; Interculturality; Culture; Communication; Globalisation; Professional; Learning; Phenomenology; Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL); Virtual Training Environment (VTE)

Full Text:

PDF

References


Byram, M., Gribkova, B. &Starkey, H. (2002).Developing the Intercultural Dimension in Language Teaching: A Practical Introduction for Teachers. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

Chen, G. M. (2005). Teaching communication with a foreign accent. Intercultural Communication Studies, 4(2), 14-22.

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison K. (eds.)(2011). Research Methods in Education, 7th Edition, London: Routledge.

Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches (Second ed.). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.

Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research Design. Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches, 3rd Edition, Los Angeles: Sage Publications.

Deardorff, D. K. (2006). Identification and assessment of intercultural competence as a student outcome of internationalization. Journal of Studies in International Education, 10(3), 241-266.

Deardorff, D.K. (2009). Implementing intercultural competence assessment. In D.K. Deardorff (Ed.), The SAGE handbook of intercultural competence, (pp.477-491). Los Angeles: Sage.

Douglas, M. (1982). "Cultural Bias," in: Douglas, M.: In the Active Voice, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul; 183-254.

Diller, J., &Moule, J. (2005).Cultural competence: A primer for educators. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

Elola, I. & Oskoz, A. (2008). Blogging: Fostering Intercultural Competence Development in Foreign Language and Study Abroad Contexts. Foreign Language Annals, 43, 3, 454-477.

Finder, A. (2005, June 24). Unclear on American campus: What the foreign teacher said. New York Times. Retrieved June 25, 2017, from http://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/24/education/24assistant.html.

Giorgi, A. (2009). The descriptive phenomenological method in psychology: A modified Husserlian approach. Pittsburg, PA: Duquesne University.

Goodfellow, Robin and Lamy, Marie-Noelle (2009). Conclusion: Directions for Research in Online Learning Cultures. In: Goodfellow, Robin and Lamy, Marie-Noelle eds. Learning Cultures in Online Education. Continuum Studies in Education. London: Continuum Books, pp. 170–183.

Gorski, P. C. (2008) Good intentions are not enough: a decolonizing intercultural education, Intercultural Education, 19:6, 515-525, DOI: 10.1080/14675980802568319

Gravois, J. (2005). Teach impediment. When the student can’t understand the instructor, who is to blame? The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved July 2, 2017, fromhttp://chronicle.com/free/v51/i31/31a01001.htm.

Heyward, M. (2004).Intercultural literacy and the international school. Dissertation/Thesis, University of Tasmania.

Jackson, A. (2009). Global competence: The knowledge and skills our students need. In Asia Society. Retrieved from http://asiasociety.org/education/partnership-global-learning/

Jandt, E. F. (2010), An introduction to intercultural communication: Identities in a global community, Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.

Kanuka, H., & Anderson, T. (2007). Ethical Issues in qualitative e-learning Research. International Journal of Qualitative Research, 6(2).

Larsson, I. (2010). Attbyggabroaröverkulturgränser: Om svenskarskommunikation med icke-svenskar vid arbeteutanförSverige. Lund; Media-Tryck.

Lauring, J. (2011). Intercultural Organizational Communication: The Social Organizing of Interaction in International Encounters. Journal of Business Communication, 48(3), 231-255.

Matsumoto, D. &Juang, L. (2008). Culture & Psychology. Belmont, CA; Wadsworth.

Mercer, J. (2007) The Challenges of Insider Research in Educational Institutions: Wielding a double-edged sword and resolving delicate dilemmas Retrieved 15 July 2017, from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/03054980601094651

Morley, J. (1991). The pronunciation component in teaching English to speakers of other languages. TESOL Quarterly, 25(3), 481-520.

Perry, L. & Southwell, L. (2011). Developing intercultural understanding and skills: models and approaches in Intercultural Education. Intercultural Education 22(6) 453-466

Rossman, G.B., & Rallis, S.F. (1998).Learning in the field: An introduction to qualitative research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Scarboro, D. (2012). Interview in Clydesdale, H. Global Vision: Education aligns to a new world order. Asia Society. Retrieved June 22, 2017, from http://asiasociety.org/ education/chinese-language-initiatives/global-vision-education-aligns-new-world-order

Schuetze, U. 2008. Exchanging Second Language Messages Online: Developing an Intercultural Communicative Competence? Foreign Language Annals 41: 660–673.

Sen Gupta, A. (2003). Changing the focus: A discussion of the dynamics of the intercultural experience. In. G. Alred, M. Byram, & M. Fleming (Eds), Intercultural experience and education (pp. 155-173). Clevendon: Multilingual Matters.

Sercu, L. 2005. Teaching foreign languages in an intercultural world. In Foreign language

teachers and intercultural competence, ed. L. Sercu, 1–18. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters

Sercu, L. 2010. Assessing intercultural competence: More questions than answers. In Testing the untestable in language education, ed. A. Paran and L. Sercu, 17–34. Bristol: Multilingual

Matters.

Sercu, L., Méndez García, M.C., Castro Prieto, P. (2005) Scaffolding culture learning. An investigation of teacher approaches. Language and Education 19(6): 483-495.

Smith, J. A., Flowers, P., & Larkin, M. (2009).Interpretive phenomenological analysis: Theory, method, and research. London: Sage.

Sperandio, J., Grudzinski-Hall, M., & Stewart-Gambino. H. (2010). Developing an undergraduate global citizenship program: Challenges of definition and assessment. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 22(1), 12-22.

Stewart, V. (2007). Becoming citizens of the world. Educational Leadership, 64(7), 8–14.

Varner, I. & Beamer, L. (2011).Intercultural communication in the global workplace. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies.

Young, T. J., &Sachdev, I. (2011). Intercultural communicative competence: exploring English language teachers’ beliefs and practices. Language Awareness, 20(2): 81-98.

Zeiss, E., &Isabelli-Garcı´a, C.( 2005). The role of asynchronous computer mediated communicationon enhancing cultural awareness. Computer Assisted Language Learning 18: 151–169.

Zhao, C., Kuh, G. D., &Carini, R. M. (2005). A comparison of international student and American student engagement in effective educational practices. The Journal of Higher Education, 76(2), 209-231.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22554/ijtel.v3i1.23

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Chris O'Toole

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This journal is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY 4.0) License.